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      首 页 《读者》航空版 关于《读者》 订购《读者》 早期文章 在线投稿 来稿选登 广告刊登
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      浅谈中国茶文化
      来源:中国茶文化网    时间:2011/12/21    阅读:13659次

         一饮茶溯源

       ?。ㄒ唬┲谢栉幕挠凭美?/P>

        唐代陆羽《茶经》称“茶之饮,发乎神农“。传说“神农尝百草,日遇七十二毒,得茶而解“。中国是发现与利用茶叶最早的国家,至今已有数千年的历史。茶树原产于中国的西南部,云南等地至今仍生存着树龄达千年以上的野生大茶树。四川、湖北一带的古代巴蜀地区据历史的记载是中华茶文化的发祥地。从唐代、宋代至元、明、清时期,茶叶生产区域不断扩大,茶文化不断发展,并逐渐传播至世界各地。茶,这一古老的饮料,为人类的文明与进步作出了积极的贡献。

       ?。ǘ┎璧姆⑾钟肜?/P>

        中国是茶的故乡。经过漫长的历史跋涉,现在茶已经在全世界50多个国家中扎下了根,茶叶已经成为风靡世界的三大无酒精饮料之一。

        如以神农时代开始算起,在中国,茶的发现和利用始于原始母系代族社会,距今大约有五六千年的历史了。

        二丰富多彩的名优茶

        中国产茶历史悠久,茶类齐全,花色品种之多称得上千姿百态、丰富多彩,品质各具特色。从历史贡茶发展至今,全国21个产茶省、市、自治区生产的茶叶,花色品类达千种以上。西湖龙井、碧螺春、祁门红茶、大红袍、冻顶乌龙茶等十大名茶,享誉海内外。品名繁多的名优茶,观其外型千姿百态,看其汤色五颜六色,尝其香味浓强鲜醇,风味各异。数百幅名优茶图谱,会使你大开眼界,更会使你产生最好都能品尝一遍的欲望。

        三民族饮茶习俗

        中国饮茶历史最早,所以,最懂得饮茶真趣??屠淳床?,以茶代酒,用茶示礼,历来是我国各民族的饮茶之道。

        “千里不同风,百里不同俗“。我国是一个多民族的国家,共有56个兄弟民族,由于所处地理环境和历史文化的不同,以及生活风俗的各异,使每个民族的饮茶风俗也各不相同。在生活中,即使是同一民族,在不同地域,饮茶习俗也各有千秋。不过把饮茶看作是健身的饮料、纯洁的化身、友谊的桥梁、团结的纽带,在这一点上又是共同的。

        汉民族的饮茶方式,大致有品茶和喝茶之分。大抵说来,重在意境,以鉴别香气、滋味,欣赏茶姿、茶汤,观察茶色、茶形为目的,自娱自乐,谓之品茶。凡品茶者,得以细啜缓咽,注重精神享受。倘在劳动之际,汗流夹背,或炎夏暑热,以清凉、消暑、解渴为目的,手捧大碗急饮者;或不断冲泡,连饮带咽者,谓之喝茶。

        不过,汉族饮茶,虽然方式有别,目的不同,但大多推崇清饮,其方法就是将茶直接用滚开水冲泡,无须在茶汤中加入姜、椒、盐、糖之类佐料,属纯茶原汁本味饮法,认为清饮能保持茶的“纯粹“,体现茶的“本色“。而最有汉族饮茶“纯粹“,体现茶的“本色“。而最有汉族饮茶代表性的,则要数品龙井、啜乌龙、吃盖碗茶、泡九道茶和喝大碗茶了。

        四饮茶健康

        历代古籍中记述饮茶有利于健康的论述是很多的。从《神农本草》、《神农食经》到李时珍的《本草纲本》都有很多关于茶作药用的记录。明代钱椿年《茶谱》说:“人饮真茶,能止渴消食、除痰少睡、利水道、明目益思、除烦去腻,人固不可一日无茶。“这些茶的功效,确实被以后的医疗科学所证实。因为茶叶中含有很多有利于人体健康的化学成份,现代医学试验表明,茶叶的保健功能是多方面的。当然,饮茶也还要讲究科学,

       ?。ㄒ唬┎枰痘С煞旨捌涠匀颂灞=〉淖饔?/P>

        茶叶的化学成分是由3.5-7%的无机物和93~96.5%的有机物组成。茶叶中的无机矿质元素约有27种,包括磷、钾、硫、镁、锰、氟、铝、钙、钠、铁、铜、锌、硒等多种。茶叶中的有机化合物主要有蛋白质、脂质、碳水化合物、氨基酸、生物碱、茶多酚、有机酸、色素、香气成分、维生素、皂苷、甾醇等。茶叶中含有20-30%的叶蛋白,但能溶于茶汤的只有3.5%左右。茶叶中含有15-4%的游离氨基酸,种类达20多种,大多是人体必需的氨基酸。茶叶中含有25-30%的碳水化合物,但能溶于茶汤的只有3-4%。茶叶中含有4-5%的脂质,也是人体必需的。除这些之外茶叶中富含若干功能性成分,它们的含量及对人体保健的作用起着相当大的作用。

       ?。ǘ┎璧谋=」δ?/P>

        唐代著名医学家陈藏器在《本草拾遗》中写道:“诸药为各病之药,茶为万病之药“,这虽夸张些,但茶的保健作用确实早已被人们所认识。经现代科学的研究表明,已知茶对人体至少有61种保健作用,对20余种疾病有防治效果。归纳古今中外的研究成果,茶对人体的保健功能约有25项。

       ?。ㄈ┎柚】?/P>

        喝什么茶对健康更有利,不能用一句话来作简单的回答,也就是说,各种茶叶的营养、药效成分有一定差异,可适合不同身体条件的人们饮用。比如身体比较虚弱的人,喝点红茶,在茶中添加点糖和奶,既可增加能量又能补充营养。青年人正处发育旺盛期,以喝绿茶为好。妇女经期前后以及更年期,性情烦躁,饮用花茶有疏肝解郁、理气调经的功效。身体肥胖、希望减肥的人,可以多喝些乌龙茶、沱茶等。常年食牛羊肉较多的人,可以多喝些砖茶、饼茶等经过后发酵的紧压茶,有助于脂肪食物的消化。经常接触有毒害物质的工作人员,可以选择绿茶作为劳动?;ひ?。脑力劳动者、军人、驾驶员、运动员、歌唱家、广播员、演员等,为了提高脑子的敏捷程度,保持头脑清醒、精神饱满,增强思维能力,判断能力和记忆力,可以饮用高档绿茶,诸如各种名优绿茶之类。

        如果单从各种茶叶营养成分和药效成分的含量比较而言,高级绿茶优于其他茶类。如维生素C、B1和B2,磷、钾、锌等矿物质,茶多酚等物质,其含量通常都是高级绿茶高于其他茶。因此,从营养保健的角度而言,喝高级绿茶更有利于健康。

        五茶之礼仪

       ?。ㄒ唬┛屠淳床栌ψ⒁馐孪?/P>

        客来敬茶是中国人的一种传统美德。虽然清茶一杯,然而这是一种高尚的礼仪??屠淳床栌ψ⒁馊缦录傅愕谝?,饮茶场所要清洁卫生,最好有幽雅的氛围;第二,茶具要与茶类适应,清洁卫生;第三,要向客人介绍茶类茶名,必要时让客人观赏一下茶的外形;第四,撮茶切忌用手抓,茶水比例要适宜;第五,品饮时宜缓不宜急,并注意适时添水续泡;第六,能借题发挥,介绍一些有关这种茶叶的产地、风貌、品质特点,更能增添不少情趣。


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